The northern part of Pindos Mountain Range, a region with high geomorphological heterogeneity (e.g., limestone rocks, screes, ultramafic outcrops) constitutes our wider study area. It also has a wide variety of habitats (e.g., Bosnian pine formations, black pine, fir, beech and oak forests, grasslands with Nardus stricta, oro-mediterranean heathlands and ravine forests). It hosts ca. 30% of the total orchid species present in Greece, and is especially rich in dactylorchids (e.g. Dactylorhiza sambucina), some of the main salep orchids in Greece. Northern Pindos has also been identified as a place under, or soon to be under, higher collection pressure for salep.